#### Let’s try to separate fact from fiction

If you happen to meet some musician who claims that **432 Hz** is “*the natural frequency of the Universe*”, which this frequency has the power of “*attract the masses to the music*” and *cure diseases*, first of all, take a look to this article by **Assaf Dar Sagol**, on Ask.audio:

432 Hz seems to be just another number without any special significance over others. Tuning your music to a specific frequency will not unlock cosmic powers, or make your music sound better or worse.

*I have already written **a post on this subject**, and this article could be his ‘reasoned’ conclusion*.

I’ll summarize it in broad terms:

### The ancient instruments

It is not true that the old instruments uses **432 Hz **as base pitch: the term “Hertz “ concept appears only in **1930**, and most likely the instruments were arranged with even lower frequencies (before standardization, the pitch of “A” fluctuated heavily between *400 Hz** and *** 460 Hz**).

As for evidence, I could not find a single solid evidence for ancient flutes or bowls tuned to 432 Hz. If you find some — please let me know!

### Pythagoras’ tuning system

The **Pythagora’s “A”** was not **432 Hz**: Pythagoras has not theorized an absolute tuning, but relative, starting from a selected tone.

Pythagoras’s tuning system was based on cycling perfect fifths. However, cycling fifths will never get you to complete a circle — unless one of the fifths is diminished. In other words, the Pythagorean scale has to be ‘tuned-down’ a little each octave in order to maintain its consistency.

### Mozart’s “A”

**Mozart **did not use **432 Hz** for all his music.

The only **Mozart’s “A”** supplied it was in 1780 and was of **421.6 Hz**

### Verdi’s “A”

Also **Giuseppe Verdi **did not use **432 Hz **as base pitch for his music: he has expressed a slight preference for **432 Hz**, because he was concerned about singers.

Verdi is the only known composer to even hint towards 432 Hz, and it was obviously for completely different reasons than cosmic spirituality.

### The frequency of the heart

Furthermore, the 432 Hz are not the frequency of the heart/brain/earth/sun/water: for example the heart frequency ranges approximately from 1 to 2.5 Hz.

### Your music would sound better

And finally, your music will not sound better at A=432Hz

Tuning to different pitches has subtle effects on the timbre of acoustic instruments, but makes no difference to electronically generated sounds.

### But, actually what changes?

Assaf says:

I do believe that musicians should be able to tune to any base frequency they like, which is why we have decided our next update will include a master tuning setting. After all, i see no reason not to tune to 432 Hz.

Have fun, create and experiment, and don’t let standards hold you back!

In my personal experience on the guitar, the only benefit that i found is a less tension of the strings, which allows a better expressiveness and a more pronounced vibrato.

But this can be accomplished simply using strings with a lower tension!

And no, even at 432Hz my girlfriend still does not loving my music!

It has more to do with numerology and sacred geometry. 432 happens to be much more uniform and “behaves” more elegant than 440, it is divisable in whole numbers, that accord to our time units. It also appears in the universe:

For example:

– 432/12 = 36 /12 = 3

– 432/2/2/2/2 = 27 = moon circulation period

– 432/60 (our time counting base) = 25.920 (cycle of precession of the earth)

– 432= 4+3+2 = 9 (special number in numerology, multiplied with any number gives always 9 again as sum of digits again; sum of numbers 1-9 equals 9; number of digits in our base system; lots of mathematical special “games” and coincidences with 9; Nikola Tesla viewed 3,6 and 9 as key to the universe, …

– 432 is a multiply of 108 (108 is sacred number in hinduism, buddhism; represents scale of sun and earth)

– The diameter of the sun is 864,000 miles (2 x 432). The diameter of the moon is 2160 miles (432/2)

You see, the 432 allows for many mathematical and astronomical patterns, that´s why it is considered a sacred number in many religions and ancient civilizations, which were fascinated with these regularities, because they could find “god” in elegant mathematical patterns and formulas. You can´t do all of that with 440.

Its related to the human voice. Tuning 12-Tet to A4 432hz seems to limit early register shift at the passaggio for the majority of voices. To me tuning to 442-443Hz is vocally the most unnatural for my voice. I need to go up to 449Hz or down to 437Hz with 432-434Hz being the nicest are.

The number 432 might be interesting from a numerological viewpoint. But the length of the second is not really. The length of the second was only developed in the 1600s. Is there any reason that 60 seconds per minute and 60 minutes per hour is a good thing? If 432 is such a great number then why not create a second that is defined as 432 seconds per hour? In other words, looking at 432 and 440 and trying to extract something out of the numerology is flawed because the length of the second is completely arbitrary. The second is defined by the rate of vibration of cesium at ground state, which is 9,192,631,770 Hz. There is nothing sacred about this frequency of the vibration of cesium, it’s just the most constant frequency of things that are easy enough to measure.

In other words, until the 432 Hz zealots can fully justify the length of a second, they are handwaving.

The percentage difference between 8 Hz and 7.82 Hz (Schumann resonance to one significant digit or three) is greater than that between 440 Hz and 432 Hz. In other words, they rely on “close enough” that isn’t close enough.

Yes, the second on the clock was developed in the 16th century, but the division of the hour into 60 minutes and of the minute into 60 seconds comes from the Babylonians who used a sexagesimal (counting in 60s) system for mathematics and astronomy. This is also the reason a circle has 360 degrees, each with 60 minutes and each of those has 60 seconds. So it is not completely arbitrary.

The use of 12 subdivisions for day and night, with 60 for hours and minutes, turns out to be much more useful than (say) 10 and 100 if you want to avoid having to use complicated notations for parts of a day. Twelve is divisible by two, three, four, six and 12 itself – whereas 10 has only three divisers – whole numbers that divide it a whole number of times. Sixty has 12 divisers and because 60 = 5 x 12 it combines the advantages of both 10 and 12. In fact both 12 and 60 share the property that they have more divisers than any number smaller than themselves.

I don’t think the Schumann resonance has anything to do with it really, but I would just pick 432 Hz over 400 Hz, because it lies in human nature to prefer more regular, elegant things. Music is all about frequency, so why not choose a base frequency that behaves much more elegant, than an alternative one that doesn’t? For me, its not about esoteric stuff, but rather mathematics – and like it is obvious; mathematics is the language that the universe is written in, that’s a fact and not esoteric “handwaving”. So music in 432 Hz would be more of an hommage and appreciation to that, and you already agreed that 432 is more interesting from that viewpoint, so why not prefer it over an random 440 number?

I think there is a reason and connection here that the ancient civilizations could build something like the Great Pyramid, which we couldn’t do today, let alone without out our technology. They were masters of astrology and numbers, and appreciated the universal language of the universe in it, not denouncing it as esoteric like we do today.