A440 or A432 tuning?

Recently I have discussed with some friends about the tunings, and emerged a theory concerning the possibility of tune instruments using the A to 432 Hz instead of 440 Hz.

So, i’ve started search some informations online, and i’ve found two interesting articles, on ask.audio and on The Mind Unleashed.

An interesting theory, halfway between science and New Age.

A Brief History of Tunings

From ask.audio:

Most of the world uses 440 Hz as the standard pitch tuning.

However, this has been a relatively recent standard, and 432 Hz is making a comeback.

Greek philosopher and mathematician, Pythagoras (570–495 BC), is often credited with identifying musical harmonic ratios related to scientific pitch and the birth of 432 Hz tuning with his instrument called the monochord.

In the early 20th century, there was a need to make a universal pitch standard used by all for sake of instrument makers, composers and orchestras everywhere.

Even though 432 Hz was fully supported by the French and Italian composers through most of the classical music periods, 440 Hz eventually became the universal pitch standard, the concert pitch:

Concert pitch refers to the pitch reference to which a group of musical instruments are tuned for a performance. Concert pitch may vary from ensemble to ensemble, and has varied widely over musical history. In the literature this is also called international standard pitch. The most common modern tuning standard uses 440 Hz for A above middle C as a reference note, with other notes being set relative to it.

The term “concert pitch” is also used to distinguish between the “written” (or “nominal”), and “sounding” (or “real”) notes of a transposing instrument — concert pitch here refers to the pitch on a non-transposing instrument. Music for transposing instruments is transposed into different keys from that of non-transposing instruments — for example, playing a written C on a B♭ clarinet or trumpet produces a non-transposing instrument’s B♭. This pitch is referred to as “concert B♭”.

The A above middle C is often set at 440 Hz although other frequencies are also used, such as 442 Hz and 443 Hz. Historically, this A has been tuned to a variety of higher and lower pitches.

The A432 debate

From The Mind Unleashed:

According to preliminary research, A=440Hz frequency music conflicts with human energy centers (i.e., chakras) from the heart to the base of the spine [the lower four].

Alternatively, chakras above the heart are stimulated.

Theoretically, the vibration stimulates ego and left-brain function, suppressing the “heart-mind,” intuition and creative inspiration.

Interestingly, the difference between 440 and 741 Hz is known in musicology as the Devil’s Interval.

A=432 is bio-neutral at worst, and is widely considered bioenergetically enhancing or healing if employed intentionally.

Meditation music at 432 Hz is certainly relaxing and soothing, though I don’t consider there to be anything “transformative” about it, and transformative measures are what we so desperately need to intercede in our collective path at this time.

(Karol Jankowiak, Solfeggio Frequencies Set Body into Full Harmony)


From ask.audio:

With so much of the musical world (acoustic and electronic) operating at 440 Hz standard tuning today, it’s hard to imagine the shift to 432 Hz happening on a large scale quickly.

But there is a growing movement underway fueled by the sound healing community, select ensembles, researchers and scientists that will keep bringing this issue to light and allow music makers and listeners to consider the power of this tuning and how it affects the mind, body and spirit.

And now a short video with different tuning on piano: