A typical NTFS filesystem contains hundreds of thousands of files.
Each file has its own $MFT entry, and all $MFT entries are given a sequential address starting from zero, zero being the $MFT entry itself.
Each MFT entry is addressed using an 6 byte number, additionally the preceding 2 bytes contains the MFT Sequence number, these two numbers combined are called the file reference number.
For example, if we take the entire 8 bytes of a File Reference Number(6 bytes for the MFT Number + 2 bytes for the sequence number) 0x060000000100 in little endian, we would need to split the 2 values as follows:
MFT Record number = [0x060000000000]
Sequence Number= 
After converting from little endian we can determine that this refers to the MFT record number 6 and has a sequence number of 1.
The sequence number incremented each time an MFT File is reallocated, as NTFS attempts to reuse existing MFT records above creating new ones, it is possible for a file to be deleted and its MFT File to be reused for a new file.
If this happens, its sequence number would be incremented from 1 (Assuming the original file was the first to occupy that MFT) to 2.
Because of the way operating systems are installed, it’s normal to see files under entire directory structures written to disk with largely sequential MFT Record Number values.
As file systems are used over the years and new patches are applied causing files to be backed up and replaced, and because MFT entries are recycled fairly quickly, the ordering of these files by MFT Record Number values can break down.
However, usually this ordering remains sufficiently intact on many systems, even after years of use, that it can be used to spot files of interest.
For example, in a directory listing from a Windows NTFS partition’s %SystemRoot%\System32 directory sorted by date, the MFT Record Number values are largely sequential and, with some exceptions, tend to align with the file creation times.
In this image, extracted from a SANS Forensic poster, both creation date and MFT record number are out of place, and identify a possible malicious activity.
andrea@Lucille:~$ analyzeMFT.py --help Usage: analyzeMFT.py [options] Options: -h, --help show this help message and exit -v, --version report version and exit -f FILE, --file=FILE read MFT from FILE -o FILE, --output=FILE write results to FILE -a, --anomaly turn on anomaly detection -e, --excel print date/time in Excel friendly format -b FILE, --bodyfile=FILE write MAC information to bodyfile --bodystd Use STD_INFO timestamps for body file rather than FN timestamps --bodyfull Use full path name + filename rather than just filename -c FILE, --csvtimefile=FILE write CSV format timeline file -l, --localtz report times using local timezone -d, --debug turn on debugging output -s, --saveinmemory Save a copy of the decoded MFT in memory. Do not use for very large MFTs -p, --progress Show systematic progress reports. -w, --windows-path File paths should use the windows path separator instead of linux
The installation is pretty simple, using PIP:
pip install analyzeMFT
Or directly cloning the repository:
git clone https://github.com/dkovar/analyzeMFT.git cd analyzeMFT python setup.py install